How to generate graphs in QC



Quality Center graphs help you analyze the relationship between different types of data in a project. Each Quality Center module contains various graph options. After you generate a graph, you can customize graph properties to display information according to your specifications.

In this exercise, you will generate a defect graph to summarize the defects by status and priority level.

To generate a Graph follow below steps:

1. Click on test Lab

2. Click on Analysis in the right side grid

3. Click on Graph link in the window

4. Select X-axis and Y-axis items

4. Click Finish 

We will get the grap based ont he selected items

Same we can get for defect's also

TestLodge – Test Management Tool



To run any new project or existing project successfully from the testing prospective Test management Tool plays key roll. Lest discuss briefly about and need of Test management tools for testing projects, to run and maintain any project for long run  any organization or team should have to store test design and test results by using some tools. By using online tools that will be very useful for any project to maintain form any location. In the market we have lot of Test case Management tools are available among them the best and very easy tool to maintain is TestLodge Test manager software.

About TestLodge: Test Lodge is a Tool which provides complete solution for managing test cases and also provide Defect tracking tool integration. The focus of TestLodge has been to provide a tool that is quick to use, is bloat free, has a good interface and keeps the testers productive. Very soon There will be an update coming that makes the tool usable on the iPad. Click on Testcase management tool to know more about tool.

5 Basic Interview Tips To Get Job



Now a day most of the people facing lot of problems to clear Interviews to get good job. Some people who is having lot of technical skills they also failing during the interview just because of basic skills so guys here I am trying to give some basic interview tips to get clear your interview so just try to follow these tips during your interview gets placed in good organizations.  
  
1. Always be Confident 
2. Act As If You are what you believe 
3. Research about Company before going for the Interview 
4. Be prepared what there in CV or resume 
5. Show interest and Ask for the Job   
  

Verification and Validation (V &V) In Software Testing



Verification: Are we developing the right product or not                        

Validation: Are we developing the product right or not
   
Basically verification and validation is the difference between What and How
  
We have two types of Verification and Validation types in Software Testing are there, below are those 
      
1. Static V&V 
2. Dynamic V & V
   
Again Static V&V have 3 types:
     
1. Technical Review
2. Inspection
3. Code Walk through.

We are doing V&V in documents, which is in papers. Static Verification corresponds to verification and validation of products, when it is static. This includes all quality Reviews, composition of the product. eg. Its structure, size and shape etc.  That's why it is called as Static V & V

Dynamic V&V: In Dynamic V&V we are conducting testing the application in real time with executable.  That's why it is called as Dynamic V&V.

Why Error Guessing is significant in testing?


Error Guessing is not a testing type nor testing method, does Error Guessing always come with the experience. Usually error guessing scope rely on the software tester involved which means who uses past experience and intuition to determine what situations commonly cause software or application failure, or which functionality leads to break or release blocks.

There are no particular rules to define error guessing but yes always Error Guessing will conduct on Ad-hoc basis. Whoever evolving the Error Guessing testing should have complete knowledge on application or Software functionality.

Now let’s discuss why Error Guessing is significant in Testing, Not only testing Error Guessing significant for Development also. Always it helps to find more valuable defects or issues can find prior end users or customers that help to the Organization to get good reputation from customers and also it reduces huge cost of maintenance.


What is requirement traceability matrix and explain Importance of Traceability matrix?



Requirement Trace-ability matrix is matrix to map between requirements and test cases or test scenarios. Normally testing team should involve rite from the requirement phase for any project if requirements are clear to develop application or product. If testing team gets involved right from the requirement phase then requirement traceability is one of the important documents that can detail what kind of test coverage the test cases or scenarios have.

Below are elements should present in Traceability Matrix:

Project Name: For Which project Traceability matrix preparing

Project Manager Name:

Project Description: Description of the Project

For each issue identified, complete the following:

ID: A unique ID number used to identify the traceability item in the requirements traceability matrix.

Associated ID(s): This column should contain the ID of any associated utilities used for requirements tracking such as a repository, pipeline document, etc

Technical Assumption(s) or Customer Need(s):  This column should be populated with a description of the technical assumption or customer need linked to the functional requirement.

Functional Requirement: This column should be populated with a description of the functional requirement.

Status: This column should be populated with the current status of the functional requirement.

Architectural/Design Document:  This column should be populated with a description of the architectural/design document linked to the functional requirement.

Technical Specification: This column should be populated with a description of the technical specification linked to the functional requirement.

System Component(s): This column should be populated with a description of the system component(s) linked to the functional requirement.

Software Module(s): This column should be populated with a description of the software module(s) linked to the functional requirement.

Test Case Number: This column should be populated with the test case number linked to the functional requirement.

Tested In: This column should be populated with the module that the functional requirement has been tested in.

Implemented In: This column should be populated with the module that the functional requirement has been implemented in.

Verification: This column should be populated with a description of the verification document linked to the functional requirement.

Additional Comments: This column should be populated with any additional comments


Explain Work bench concept Phases?



Below are the phases of Bench mark concept:

Requirement phase workbench: For this phase the input will be the customer’s or end users requirements and team execute the task of writing a requirement documents.

Design phase workbench: In this phase the input will be the requirement documents and team execute the task of preparing a technical document.

Execution phase workbench: In this phase actual execution starts. The input will be the technical document.

Testing phase workbench: This phase is the actual testing phase of the project. The input is the source code which needs to be tested.

Deployment phase workbench: This is the deployment phase. There are two inputs for this phase: one is the source code which needs to be deployed and that is dependent on the test results. The output of this project is that the customer gets the product which he can now start using.

Maintenance phase workbench: The input to this phase is the deployment results, execution is implementing change requests from the end customer, the check part is nothing but running regression. 

Explain how to define a testing policy?



Explain how to define a testing policy?

During the Interview process this question asks to see whether interviewee can able handle the team and follow the life cycle or not. In the market still there are so many companies think testing is secondary than development so testing managers should show the importance of testing in terms of Test approaches, testing policies and testing processes.

Below are the few steps to define a testing policy in general but these are not a standard steps again it will vary company to company.

Definition: Any company should start with define one unique definition for testing within the company because everybody needs to be with the same mind set.

How to achieve: In this step needs to define how are we going to achieve our objective? Is there going to be a testing committee, will there be compulsory test plans which need to be executed, etc...

Evaluate: And in the evaluate step after testing is implemented for a particular application or project how do we evaluate it? Are we going to derive metrics of defects per phase, per programmer, etc.? Finally, it’s important to let everyone know how testing has added value to the project.

Standards: And in this step what are the standards we want to achieve by testing the application for instance, we can say that more than 20 defects per KLOC will be considered below standard and code review should be done for it.

What is Security testing and what are the main things to test in Security Testing?



Whenever we develop any web applications security testing should be on top priority basically for Finance domain and banking applications. Commonly in security testing below terms uses most of the times.

 - Password cracking
 - Vulnerability
 - URL manipulation
 - SQL injection
 - Cross Site Scripting
 - Spoofing

Below are few things needed to concentrate while doing security testing:

 - Authentication validations and Password protection
 - Direct URL’s should not work after logging to the application
 - HTTP and HTTP’s validations
 - Protocols and IP config validations
 - Memory leeks
 - Configuration of the application in servers

Explain Software QA Roles and Responsibilities


Trainee QA Responsibilities: 

  • Read and understand the Business requirements
  • Read and understand QA test plan and approach
  • Prepare Test Scenarios
  • Prepare Test cases
  • Test Execution
  • Defect raising
Senior QA Responsibilities:
  • Read and understand the requirements
  • Prepare module level or iteration level QA Test plan and approach
  • Prepare test scenarios and Test cases
  • Prepare Automation test scripts
  • Review Test scenarios and Test cases prepared by team members
  • Review Defects raised by team members and Defect analysis
  • daily status reports
  • Schedule KT session to team members
QA Lead Responsibilities:
  • Under stand the Business by attending meetings with the client and business analysts
  • Prepare whole project Test plan and Approach 
  • Prepare Daily and weekly status reports formats
  • Send weekly execution status reports to the shake holders
  • Resource planning
  • Have calls with customers weekly to update the project status and test execution status
  • Automation frame works
  • Review the test design and automation scripts very high level

Explain the concept of defect cascading?



Defect cascading explains how one defect leads to other defects.


Example: In the above flow chart for an employee application salary calculations are not correct when totaling Basic, Tax and Gross, so for this issue defect raised. In this case other modules will block and also same defect will exists in all those modules due to  this defect. This is called Defect Cascading.



What are the different defect categories and explain?



We have 3 types of Defect Categories:
  • Wrong
  • Missing
  • Extra

Wrong:  This defect category is a variance from the given requirement specification. This means if there are any discrepancies in requirement documents it will fall under this category.

Missing: During the development or design if we miss any requirement which is given by the customer those type of defect categories fall under this. This type of missing causes by when requirement explain by the customer was not noted properly and customer requirement not explained to the team properly when they were developed.  

Extra: During the development if a new requirement added to the existing requirements which is not given by the customer those changes or defects fall under this category.


What is PDCA cycle?



PDCA cycle depends on Software development life cycle, in any Software Development process Software testing plays key role always. In software development process there should be four important steps, they are Plan, Do, Check and Act which refers PDCA cycle.

In PDCA cycle actual test execution will start during the Check Stage, in Plan and Do phases management and leads will come up with the plan and strategy and in Check stage testers will start execution and in Act stage leads and management take decisions based on the issues testers facing in Check stage.
                                     
Detail explanation of above four steps:

Plan: Defines what to test, where to test and who to test and explains time lines and testing cycles.

Do: Executing the above plan with the time lines specified

Check: Verifying and cross checking whether everything going as planned and within the project time lines


Act: Taking decision and supporting the team if any issues facing in above steps

Explain few Software Development Models?


 Spiral Model: The spiral model is a Software Development model in this model there are number of cycles (or spirals) of all the sequential steps of the waterfall model. Whenever first iteration or initial cycle complete then will go for the reviews and demos of the developed model if it is not as per the specified requirements or expected standards, a second cycle follows, and so on. Always Spiral model or method follows an iterative approach and mainly it is useful for very large projects having complex and constantly changing requirements.

Rational Unified Process (RUP): In Rational Unified Process each cycle should have four phases those are inception, elaboration, construction and transition. At the end of each cycle conduct reviews of the product or the application and also further cycle follows if necessary. This model also similar to the spiral model because entire cycle broken up into multiple cycles or processes.

Agile Model: Now a days most of the Organizations adapting Agile Methodology because Agile methodology is more flexible to continue Product or application development. Agile methodology is a selective mix of both Spiral and RUP approaches in addition to quite a few new developmental methods. Fast and incremental development is one of the key principles of this methodology. The focus is on obtaining quick, practical and visible outputs and results, rather than merely following theoretical processes.

Rapid Application Development (RAD): It is very rare approach to follow; very few Organizations are following this method.

How to control warnings from the “Test results page” in QTP?


To Suppress warnings from the Test results Viewer go to “Tools > Filters > and un-check Warnings”  check box.

Explain QuickTest Window in detail?

The QTP window contains the following key elements:

Title bar: Displays the title of the currently open test.

Testing toolbar: Contains buttons to assist the testing process.
Menu bar: Displays menus of QTP commands.
Test pane: Contains the Keyword View and Expert View tabs.
Active Screen: Provides a snapshot of your application as it appeared when you performed a certain step during the recording session.
File toolbar: Contains buttons to assist you in managing your test.
Debug toolbar: Contains buttons to assist you in debugging tests.
Data Table: Assists you in parameterization of your test.
Status bar: Displays the status of the QuickTest application. 
Debug Viewer pane: Assists in debugging tests or scripts. The Debug Viewer pane contains the Watch Expressions, Variables, and Command tabs.

What are the extension of script and object repository files in QTP?



QTP Object Repository extension: .tsr
QTP Script extension: .mts

How to identify Object while Recording script in QTP?

While recording any script it stores Object as Test Object. For each and every test object class checks whether this description is enough to uniquely identify the object. If it is not, QTP adds assistive properties to the test objects one by one to the description until it has a unique description.

How to identify Object during test run?

When ever test scripts runs it searches for a run-time object that exactly matches the description of the test object. Always it will expects to find a perfect match for both the mandatory and any Assistive properties of test objectuses Smart Identification mechanism to identify an object, even when the recorded description is no longer accurate.


How to do Load testing for web based Application by using QTP?


First of all QTP is not a right option for the Loadtesting,the best option will be Loadrunner.

1. Open web application and record script of particular  scenario in QTP 
2. Make 100 copies of that script of particular scenario and run the test
3. In that case, do the load of application on server.
4. The basic logic of running the copy 100 times is to create same scenario as if 100 users were working.

How to open a new script using QTP?


To open any script in QTP follow below steps:

First Method: If QTP not yet open then go to Start > Programs > QuickTest Professional > QuickTest Professional then welcome window opens now click Blank Test. 

a. The other way is go to File menu > and click New  then a blank test opens. 

b. Another way is or click the New button on the tool bar then a blank test opens.

Second Method: If QTP is already open then check which add-ins are loaded by selecting Help > About QuickTest Professional. If the Web Add-in is not loaded, you must exit and restart QuickTest. When the Add-in Manager opens, select the Web Add-in, and clear all other add-ins. Go to File menu > click on New then  blank test opens. Another way is  click the New button on the tool bar.

Explain Test Fusion Report of QTP ? 

After Test run comeplete  Test Fusion report displays all aspects of the test run. a high-level results overview, an expandable Tree View of the test specifying exactly where application failures occurred, the test data used, application screen shots for every step that highlight any discrepancies, and detailed explanations of each checkpoint pass and failure. By combining TestFusion reports with QuickTest Professional, you can share reports across an entire QA and development team. 


How to Run a Test Scripts using QTP?


We can run Test Scripts in 2 different ways:

1. Start QuickTest and open your test.

2. If QuickTest is not already open, choose Start > Programs > QuickTest Professional then welcome window opens, click on Open Existing. 

Now Click Run button or go to Test >and click Run then Run dialog box will open. Then select New run results folder and accept the default results folder name and click OK button then Run dialog box will close.

How to confirm that all images are saved to the test results or not?

QTP allows you to determine when to save images to the test results. Choose Tools > Options and select the Run tab. In the Save step screen capture to test results option, select Always then click OK button to close the Options dialog box. Then automatically all the images will save in the test results.



How to Save recorded or written script using QTP?


Select File > and click Save or the another way is click the Save button on tool bar then Save dialog box opens to the Tests folder.Now create a folder to save the script then type your test name in the File name field and click Save. After successfully script saved test name should display in the title bar of the main QuickTest window.  

How many types of Object Repository's available in QTP? 

QTP have two types of Object Repository's
1. Shared Object Repository
2. Action Object Repository

The object repository per-action mode is the default setting. and during the test script creation we can choose eassly which object repository is the default one. If we modify values in an action object repository, the changes do not have any effect on other actions.But , if the same test object exists in more than one action and we modify an object’s property values in one action then we may need to make the same change in every action containing the object.